Online Field Guide to The Reptiles and Amphibians of Arizona
Maricopa County, AZ
Yuma Co., AZ
| GOODE’S HORNED LIZARD
Phrynosoma (Doliosaurus) goodei
DESCRIPTION: A medium-sized (up to about 95 mm or 3.75″ from snout to vent), exceptionally flat and wide lizard. Thick, spike-like scales project from the back of the head. The two central head spikes (occipital horns) project up and back, and are noticeably longer than the other spikes. The bases of the occipital horns are not in contact with one another. Several isolated, pointed scales project from the back. Each lower side of the body is edged with one or two fringes of enlarged, pointed scales. A row of enlarged, pointed scales projects from each side of the throat. Base coloration is tan, gray, or brown and usually matches the soil on which the lizard lives. The lower edges of the body are often infused with salmon, peach, or orange. A pair of large dark blotches marks the neck and the back is often adorned with paired dark blotches. The rear of edge of each body blotch is often outlined with white or cream. The venter is often maked with sparse dark flecks which are more dense and prominenet on the anterior venter and throat. In southern Arizona, the similar looking Desert Horned Lizard often has extensive dark flecking on the entire venter and its occipital horns point nearly straight back (not UP and back). Goode’s Horned Lizard lacks a dark dorsal stripe distinguishing it from the similar Flat-tailed Horned Lizard. The bases of the occipital horns of the similar looking Regal Horned Lizard contact one another.
DISTRIBUTION: This lizard is distributed across Arizona southwestern basin deserts south of the Gila River at elevations ranging from near sea level along the Colorado River to about 610 m (2,000′).
HABITAT: In Arizona this desert-dweller inhabits the Lower Colorado River Valley subdivision of Sonoran Desertscrub. It is usually encountered in relatively flat, open, areas with sandy or loamy soil and is less frequently encountered on rocky bajadas and foothills.
BEHAVIOR: This diurnal ground-dweller is most active in the morning and evening. It seeks shelter from the high mid-day temperatures by burying itself in the soil or retreating into an existing burrow. When encountered it is more likely to run than our other horned lizards but it often stops under the nearest bush. When captured it may inflate itself by gulping air, poke with the horns, and flatten the body into a disc shape.
DIET: Goode’s Horned Lizard feeds on ants, beetles, the larvae of moths and butterflies, and a variety of other insects. It also feeds on a variety of spiders and some plant material.
REPRODUCTION: One or two clutches of eggs are laid in spring and summer. Clutch size ranges from 2 to 16 eggs.
By Thomas C. Brennan
Brennan, T. C., & A. T. Holycross. 2005. A Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of Maricopa County. Arizona Game and Fish Department. Phoenix, AZ
Degenhardt, W. G., Painter, C. W., and Price, A. H.. 1996. Amphibians and Reptiles of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press. Albuquerque.
Mulcahy, D.G., A.W. Spaulding, J.R. Mendelson III, and E.D. Brodie jr. 2006. Phylogeography of the flat-tailed horned lizard (Phrynosom mcallii) and systematics of the P. mcallii-platyrhinos mtDNA complex. Molecular Ecology.
Stebbins, R.C. 2003. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.
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